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Citing Sources and Creating Bibliographies: Home


Use notes and citations to acknowledge sources you have used that directly or indirectly are featured in your written work. This allows the readers, including your instructors

  • to see what kinds of sources have been used (for example, are they reputable, current resources?)
  • to return to the original material to verify information and learn more.

Avoid the serious charge of PLAGIARISM -- using another person's ideas or words in your writing without acknowledging the source. Identify every source, in every format, that you have used for your research whether it provided you with ideas, facts, opinions, or exact wording. Note that you do not need to acknowledge information that is considered “common knowledge” even if you happened to see it in a written source; an example of “common knowledge” is “Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States”. If you are not sure whether an item you  have seen should be in your “List of Works Consulted”, err on the side of caution and include it. 


FIT takes plagiarism seriously
Academic Honor Code (from the Office of Academic Affairs)
Avoiding Plagiarism (from the Writing Studio at FIT)

Work with your instructors, the Writing Studio, and the Library, to help you acknowledge ideas you found elsewhere, and let own original work shine.

About This Guide

Use this guide to help you properly cite the sources you've consulted for research papers and to create a Bibliography / List of Works Consulted / References and parenthetical references (footnotes).  

There are several commonly-used, widely-accepted formats for citing materials used in research, including APA, MLA, and Chicago style.  Be aware that your instructor or academic department may favor a specific format; use whichever format is required or recommended. Whichever one you choose should be followed consistently; don’t use one format for books and a different one, for example, for online resources. The Fashion Business Management Department (FBM, formerly FMM) is requiring APA style beginning in Fall 2015.

This research guide is focused on APA and MLA style.  APA citation formats and examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010) and MLA citation formats and examples are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed., 2009) as well as on the appropriate sections of the OWL: The Purdue Online Writing Lab: Research and Citation Resources The 8th ed. of MLA (2016) substantially changes how citations are formatted.  This Research Guide will be updated soon.  In the meantime, consult OWL.   For more help these and other citation styles (e.g. Chicago style), consult the tabs for Style Manuals [APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.] and More Help on this Guide.

Using this guide: Each type of publication has its own tab above (Books and e-Books, Articles, Databases, etc.).  On each page there are basic format boxes and citation example boxes with tabs for APA and MLA.  Be sure to select consistently the style tab that you are using. Some of the sample citations have explanations bulleted below.

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Marian Weston
Gladys Marcus Library,
27th Street & 7th Ave,
New York, NY

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