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Citing Sources and Creating Bibliographies: Home

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ALL SOURCES MUST BE CITED

Use notes and citations to acknowledge sources you have used that directly or indirectly are featured in your written work. This allows the readers, including your instructors, to see what kinds of sources have been used (for example, are they reputable, current resources?) and to return to the original material to verify information.

Avoid the serious charge of PLAGIARISM -- using another person's ideas or words in your writing without acknowledging the source. Identify every source, in every format, that you have used for your research whether it provided you with ideas, facts, opinions, or exact wording. Note that you do not need to acknowledge information that is considered “common knowledge” even if you happened to see it in a written source; an example of “common knowledge” is “Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States”. If you are not sure whether an item you  have seen should be in your “List of Works Consulted”, err on the side of caution and include it. 

About This Guide

Use this guide to help you properly cite the sources you've consulted for research papers and to create a Bibliography / List of Works Consulted / References and parenthetical references (footnotes).  

There are several commonly-used, widely-accepted formats for citing materials used in research, including APA, MLA, and Chicago style.  Be aware that your instructor or academic department may favor a specific format; use whichever format is required or recommended. Whichever one you choose should be followed consistently; don’t use one format for books and a different one, for example, for online resources. The Fashion Business Management Department (FBM, formerly FMM) is requiring APA style beginning in Fall 2015.

This research guide is focused on APA (being added to all pages in early Fall 2015) and MLA style.  APA citation formats and examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010) and MLA citation formats and examples are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed., 2009) as well as on the appropriate sections of the OWL: The Purdue Online Writing Lab: Research and Citation Resources.  For more help these and other citation styles (e.g. Chicago style), consult the tabs for Style Manuals [APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.] and More Help on this Guide.

Using this guide: Each type of publication has its own tab above (Books and e-Books, Articles, Databases, etc.).  On each page there are basic format boxes and citation example boxes with tabs for APA and MLA.  Be sure to select consistently the style tab that you are using. Some of the sample citations have explanations bulleted below.

mw 8.27.15

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