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FM114 and Beyond

About Citing Sources

Remember to properly cite all sources you've consulted for research papers and  create a List of Works Consulted or Cited (a bibliography) and parenthetical references (footnotes).  


Use notes and citations to acknowledge sources you have used that directly or indirectly are featured in your written work. This allows the readers, including your instructors, to see what kinds of sources have been used (for example, are they reputable, current resources?) and to return to the original material to verify information.

Avoid the serious charge of PLAGIARISM -- using another person's ideas or words in your writing without acknowledging the source. Identify every source, in every format, that you have used for your research whether it provided you with ideas, facts, opinions, or exact wording. Note that you do not need to acknowledge information that is considered “common knowledge” even if you happened to see it in a written source; an example of “common knowledge” is “Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States”. If you are not sure whether an item you  have seen should be in your “List of Works Consulted”, err on the side of caution and include it. 

APA citation and writing style

The Fashion Business Management Department (FBM) requires APA citation style.

For help, consult:

Tips for creating your List of Works Consulted / Cited

  • Keep track of your sources as you do your research.


  • complete citations for everything you cited parenthetically or in footnotes within the body of your paper (See Citations within your paper for more proper format)
  • all other sources you used as background research, even if you did not quote or refer to the source directly 

Also note:

  • Sources are interfiled alphabetically by first word of citation, usually author or title. When alphabetizing a title, ignore initial A, An or The.
  • Do not separate out books from other types of materials such as magazine articles or websites.
  • Indent the second and any following lines of each entry, creating a hanging indent.
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