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Citing Sources: Chicago/ Turabian

Direct Quotes vs. Paraphrasing

QuotesWhen you are directly quoting from a book and using the author's exact words, make sure you put quotation marks (" ") around their words.  If you are paraphrasing or putting the author's idea in your own words, you do not need to use quotation marks but you still need to cite to give them credit for their idea. 


Direct quote:

"No elegant lady spending hundreds of dollars for a dress wants to push her way through a mobbed department store" 

Paraphrased sentence:

A lady spending a lot of money on clothes doesn't want to have to deal with a crowd of people in a busy store.

One Author

One Author Insert a superscript number at the end of the sentence and add a corresponding footnote in the footer at the bottom of your page.  The first time you mention a source include author, book title, publication information and page numbers.  If you mention the source again you can just use a shortened footnote with just the author's last name, shortened book title and page number.

What is superscript?

It's a tiny letter or number that is half the size of your font and appears to float slightly above.  (eg. 1

What is a footnote?

The footer is a special section at the bottom of a document where your footnotes will appear in a numbered list.  Often it is marked by a small line to indicate where the body of your paper ends and the footer of your paper begins.  Here is an example of what that would look like in this Example Chicago Style Paper


Example from Book

"No elegant lady spending hundreds of dollars for a dress wants to push her way through a mobbed department store."1

 

1. Bill Cunningham, Fashion Climbing (New York: Penguin Press, 2018), 19.

 

Example from Journal Article

"The Reign of Paris over both national and international high-fashion markets lasted from the mid-nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth."2

 

2. Véronique Pouillard, "Design Piracy in the Fashion Industries of Paris and New York in the Interwar Years," The Business History Review 85, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 319-344, https://libproxy.fitsuny.edu:2598/stable/41301394.

No Author

 

No Author

If there is no author mentioned (very common with websites) use a shortened version of the title.  If there is no page number just leave it out.  If there is no date of publication put "n.d." as the abbreviation for "no date".

 

Example from a Website

Eleanor Lambert, the founder of the Council of Fashion Designers of America "was a pioneer in bringing American fashion and fashion designers to their present international stature".1

1. "About CFDA," Council of Fashion Designers of America, accessed November 4, 2020, https://cfda.com/about-cfda.

eBook

eBook

Since the page number of ebooks are not consistent (i.e. they change depending on the device and font settings) you should not use page numbers for in-text citations.  One option is to use chapter numbers if they are provided.

 

Notes Bibliography Example

Much of the dramatic changes in Indian fashion in the last two decades can be traced back to the economic reforms initiated by the Indian government in the 1990s.1


1. Arti Sandhu, Indian Fashion : Tradition, Innovation, Style (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), chap. 1, https://libproxy.fitsuny.edu:2648/products/berg-fashion-library/book/indian-fashion-tradition-innovation-style.

Author-Date Example

Much of the dramatic changes in Indian fashion in the last two decades can be traced back to the economic reforms initiated by the Indian government in the 1990s (Sandhu 2015, chap. 1).

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